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Visual muscle size differences in plant-based athletes

Hi Sigma team. I'm a coach of a combat sport. Subsequently, I am very aware of my students' weights. Anecdotally, I have noticed a trend in my plant-based students that, when compared to students eating non plant-based diets, there appears an obvious visual difference in muscle sizes (smaller/not as pronounced in plant-based) in individuals of the same weight and approximate height/dimensions. This difference only seems visual, there does not appear to be differences in strength, power, speed etc. Has this been tested/documented/researched anywhere? While I acknowledge these observations might simply be a confirmation bias of mine, if true what might explain this phenomenon? Thanks, Steve.

MPS: Post-exercise vs Rested Conditions

During post exercise conditions does protein ingestion stimulate MPS for longer than the usual 2-3 hour period reported in rested conditions?


Is astaxanthin a good substitute for algae oil for someone who follows a vegan diet?

Protein status

Would you please share your opinion about how you evaluate protein status in the body? Do you consider serum proteins (albumin etc) as a reliable indicators of protein sufficiency/ insufficiency in the diet, or indicators that people absorb all the protein they consume? Or amino acids profile would better indicate the protein status? Thank you

Studies comparing VLED vs bariatric surgeries for T2D

Good morning, As a follow-up to the episode with Adrian Brown and the episode with Dr Taylor, I was wondering if we have any quality studies reviewing VLED and bariatric surgery for long term T2D remission and QoL? Looking at the studies from Mingrone and al., most studies still seem to suggest that bariatric surgeries seem to improve QoL and remission better than traditional MNT interventions, especially long-term. However, I am not aware of studies comparing intensive lifestyle/VLED interventions vs bariatric and even vs weight-neutral/lifestyle approaches (control) for T2D/mortality. Thanks!