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What impact does salt have on bone health?

Salt can impact calcium excretion in the urine and it is said that a high salt diet can increase risk of osteoporosis as it draws calcium from the bone and excretes it. How much of an impact does dietary salt intake actually have on bone health and how high would salt intake have to be for this to be a concern. Obviously high salt intakes are not something to aim for in general, but just wondered if this was a mechanism that could remove meaningful amounts of calcium in a way that I should be advising around this in those that we work with as nutritional professionals. Thanks!

How much Protein is Optimal and Safe for Whole Body Use

I enjoyed AMA #1 with Dr Phillips and I know he's going to cringe but I am still confused on what is considered optimal & safe to consume daily. If I have this right, 20-30 grams per meal is a target for Muscle Protein Syntheses. That suggests that much of the consumed protein could be used for muscle growth, but if that was what you were consuming and the other trillions of cells need 75% of that protein, that only leaves 5-7.5 grams from muscle syntheses. The other part of my question is how much is considered safe to consume on a daily basis. I've seen numbers ranging from about 2 grams/Kilo to almost 4 grams/Kilo. My impression is that the high limits are based on the assumption that it stresses the kidneys. I don't recall reading anything where that has actually been seen in other than people who already had compromised kidney function. Sorry my question was so long. If you use it, please paraphrase liberally.

Nutritional needs for doped athletes

How can we assess nutritional needs for athletes using PEDs?


I consume a vegan diet for environmental and ethical reasons. After 6 years of this diet, I was having noticeable memory/recall issues. I started supplementing choline bitartrate, Coq10, creatine, and taurine and have had much improvement. Is there a scientific basis why this would happen? Are there risks to these supplements? In particular, does choline increase risk because of TMAO? I supposedly have a genetically increased need for choline. Thank you!

Zinc supplementation in anemia of prematurity

Hi Danny! Paul Sharp talked about how it may be beneficial to supplement zinc with iron for anemia. Would this be helpful in cases of anemia of prematurity? We routinely give iron supplementation to prevent this but I’m wondering if the addition of zinc would also be beneficial to prevent anemia in preemie babies.