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Liposuction effect on leptin and hunger?

When someone undergoes liposuction or other surgery that removes adipose tissue, is there a sudden reduction in leptin levels? While this may reduce leptin resistance, could the drop in leptin lead to increased hunger over time?

Chronic dieting and appetite dysregulation

What is the current research around how chronic energy restriction or following crash diets affects appetite hormones and/ or appetite regulation long term. Is there a physiological mechanism influencing overeating attributable to appetite dysregulation caused by chronic dieting. I ask as this is something I am often tackling in my nutrition consultancy but research in biochemical and physiological mechanisms seems lacking.

Appetite control in women with PCOS

Do you have any suggestions how to better manage hunger in obese women with PCOS? Any specific nutrition or lifestyle recommendations? Thanks a lot in advance.

Empty Calories While Bulking?

If someone is eating in a calorie surplus on purpose, and the foundation of their diet is solid, is there any harm in adding in "empty" calories to hit their calorie goals more easily? For example, should they expect any harm from eating an extra 500 calories of maltodextrin every day? Let's assume that the body composition changes are good. The person is underweight and is gaining mostly muscle, finishing at a healthy body weight a few months later, at which point they quit the maltodextrin.

Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk

What are your all thoughts on this recent publication ( Adjustment model, follow-up time, contrast in exposure, etc, all appeared sufficient.