What is the current research around how chronic energy restriction or following crash diets affects appetite hormones and/ or appetite regulation long term. Is there a physiological mechanism influencing overeating attributable to appetite dysregulation caused by chronic dieting. I ask as this is something I am often tackling in my nutrition consultancy but research in biochemical and physiological mechanisms seems lacking.
If someone is eating in a calorie surplus on purpose, and the foundation of their diet is solid, is there any harm in adding in "empty" calories to hit their calorie goals more easily? For example, should they expect any harm from eating an extra 500 calories of maltodextrin every day? Let's assume that the body composition changes are good. The person is underweight and is gaining mostly muscle, finishing at a healthy body weight a few months later, at which point they quit the maltodextrin.